【To the Readers of The Conception of Strategic Bombing From the Author, Tetsuo Maeda】
Seventy years have passed since the end of the Second World War (1945). The memories of the War have naturally been called back to be talked about or discussed all over the world. The air raids upon the urban areas are also brought back to our mind. Memorial events are being held at many places in the various parts of the world ― including London, Berlin, Dresden, Tokyo, Hiroshima, and so on.
Now in that very year, The Conception of Strategic Bombings: Guernica, Chongqing & Hiroshima ― an English version of 戦略爆撃の思想 ― has been published to reach the new readers all over the world, to the great relief of the author and all those concerned both in China and in Japan.
The author, born in 1938, naturally retains no memory of those indiscriminate bombings the Japanese military started in the very same year upon Chongqing or the then interim capital of China. Nevertheless, I feel as if those strange sounds ― “J.-kei-baku-geki(the bombardments on Chongqing)” ― had already been made familiar to me even in my infancy. Probably, those scraps of sounds in the conversations being exchanged among the grownups around me might have happened to pop into my ears to remain stuck at the depth of my brain.
In later years when I came to study the war history, those faint sounds that had been left in my ears began to bring about a great resonance to my brain. By and by, I began to realize that: a grave turning point in the war history had started then and there, and still, the Japanese simply remained totally ignorant of what they had done during what they called “China Incident,” ― thus depriving themselves of any opportunities to learn even fundamental facts about it or to make any investigation into what they had done, to say nothing of offering the casualties any sincere repentance for the crimes they had committed then and there, to my great compunction as a Japanese researcher into that warfare. About forty years have passed since then.

In the meantime, I visited Chongqing five times to meet those who had suffered the air raids and those who had been investigating the matter. I walked around the historical remains of the air raids and the memorial places of resistance to Japan in “the mountain castle city of Chongqing.” Even though I was amazed at the great development the city had been making every time I visited there, I could not help feeling ― when listening to what had remained in the piles of the memories kept buried beneath that great earth of hongan (scarlet rock) as the very base of those high-rising modern buildings and the high-spirited activities of the local people ― as if I could hear the distant voices of those who had to die a lonely death, even if they had wished to appeal anything they had kept in their mind.
On the other hand, I kept myself busy at home, too, making frequent visits to the Defense Agency's Research Library to read through the huge volumes of The Battle Records (The General Version & The Detailed Version), trying to obtain a wide-scopic viewpoint to grasp how the murderous intent from the sky and the resistant spirit on the earth came to meet. In other words, I had intended to find out the true nature of modern warfare in which the offenders in the sky and the casualties on the earth remain aloof or lacking in any relationship with each other because of their total inability to see each other. It can be called “a form of slaughter peculiar to the war in the industrial period” or “the Massacre in Nanjing, deprived of its physical nature.”

After having had all these experiences, if I am asked what it was that had characterized the warfare in the 20th century, I shall give an immediate answer without any hesitation: “The aerial bombardments.” The airplanes were the products of the 20th century, and their working altitude was so high that it deprived both attackers and defenders of their sense of (physical) reality in the massacre. Undoubtedly, on the first page of the history of the aerial massacres, what the Japanese military had inflicted upon the citizens of Chongqing would be mentioned and regarded as the first case to have taken the initiative in adopting such a new method of massacre in warfare. In fact, it was then and there that “the city was looked down at” and “the people were helplessly exposed to the danger” for the first time in the history of wars. And that pattern of the air raiding that started there still remains existent somewhere on the earth even to this day in the 21st century. The global significance of the bombardments upon Chongqing, therefore, lies in this point, I believe.
This, therefore, means that we are still living in “the prolonged 20th century,” instead of having grown out of it. I think the readers of this book will also agree with me, if only you picture in your mind those bloody and firy bird's-eye views of the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Persian Gulf War, the Iraq War.... What I had intended to do in writing this book was: to dig out what the air-raidings upon Chongqing as “the first victims” of the modern warfare in the 20th century were really like, to record them, to inspect their historical significance and the whereabouts of their responsibility so that I may throw them back to the present situation we live in. Then it goes without saying that Japan will be blamed as “the very nation to have thrown the first stone.” Japan's crime will lie not only in what it has once done but also in the ignorance and apathy it has kept assuming even to this day.

More than seventy years have passed since then, and those who have remembered what was happening then and there are growing smaller in number. And still, I think all those things happening in Chongqing then must be kept remembered and denounced generation after generation for the reasons as follows:
1)The intention to attack the city itself was cruel and inhuman.
2)The massacres were performed mechanically and apathetically, both of “the killers and the killed” having been deprived of any possibility to see each other.
3)The new technology brought about in the 20th century has enabled us to commit “the terrorism from the sky.”
These are the apparent labels to distinguish the wars in the 20th century from all the wars in the previous centuries. The aerial attack brought about “a great leap” in the history of making wars ― no less than the appearance of the bow and arrows or the invention of the rifle had done. It is impossible for us to know how it was like when a bow and arrow or a rifle made the first appearance in the battlefield. As for the aerial bombardment, however, we are able to follow all the processes of its development minutely, including “the mutations it has brought about in the history of wars,” as I have done in writing this book, beginning with what happened in Chongqing as its starting point. And still, this method of war-making, despite of its incomparably cruel nature, has not yet been treated in history as properly as it should, even though it has repeatedly been employed in those regional conflicts after World War Ⅱ, thus demanding “the actualization and generalization of the bombardments upon Chongqing.”

Let me emphasize again: the bombardments upon Chongqing have not yet been shut up in the closed past. That conception has been turned into the model of “the new type of war.” At the final stage when the Sino-Japanese War was turned into World War Ⅱ, “the Conception of Strategic Bombing” was taken over by the U.S.A. to be developed and escalated into the bombardments upon many cities in Japan until it reached its climax of the atomic bombings upon Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This was how Chongqing and Hiroshima・Nagasaki got connected with each other by the same-rooted conception of strategic bombing ― even though separate in timing: the former occurred before the outbreak of the Pacific War, the latter toward the end of it.
Certainly, the latter turned out to have brought about “a boomerang effect of punishment” to the militarist Japan, but this did not mean the end of “the new-type of war.” In the regional conflicts that followed World War Ⅱ, the same sort of nightmares as had once been experienced by the citizens of Chongqing did come round to fall upon the citizens of the Third World. This is something we must not forget. The bombardments upon the urban areas have turned into a new type of cancer cells in war-making, and spread far and wide all over the world. Thus “the lesson offered by the example of Chongqing” still remains to be shared by us all. Even though the reality of the U.S. bombardments is hidden under such a false name as “a precision-guided bombardment,” the actual scenes one may see with one's own eyes or through mass media never fail to reveal the fact that: Kosovo, Baghdad, and Kabul are now suffering the same kind of tragedies as Chongqing suffered in “5.3 & 5.4.” or in “the tragic incident in the air-raid tunnel.”

Thus following the flow of history, while facing the present reality, we shall have to check “the history of the terrorism from the sky,” which had started in Chongqing to reach the climax at Hiroshima. Without the knowledge of what occurred in Chongqing, we shall never be able to grasp “what Hiroshima・Nagasaki meant” nor be qualified to inquire into the criminal nature of “the urban bombardments” being performed by the U.S. Air Force in such a light-hearted manner as if being engaged in a daily chore. What has kept me concerned in “the bombardments upon Chongqing” by the Japanese military has come from such awareness of the matter as mentioned above.
As I have offered detailed explanations in this book, Japan's bombardments upon Chongqing were performed with the intention to win the war by discouraging the people's intention to go on fighting, thus making the city itself a target, by employing the air force only, and mainly by the Navy Air Corps.
According to The History on Chongqing's Resistance To Japan, published in 1985, 11,885 residents were brought to death by the 218 air raids performed during the two years and a half.(According to the latest research conducted at Xinan University by Professors Pan Xun and Peng Xinghua ― the authors of The Losses We Suffered by the Great Bombardments upon Chongqing during the War Against Japan: Along with the Problems Left Behind ― the number of the deaths was 14,652.)The victory Japan had intended to win was not by annihilating the enemy troops at the battlefield but by “crushing the enemy nation's intention to go on fighting.” Such a kind of attack had been attempted in the year before(in April, 1937) at Guernica in Spain by Nazi's Air Force, but it was a single-day attack that caused 1,654 deaths, while what the citizens of Chongqing suffered was incomparably greater in degree and longer in period.
Nevertheless, what actually occurred in Chongqing still remains almost unknown.
Firstly because “the International Military Tribunal held in Tokyo” did judge such wartime crimes as “barbaric slaughters inflicted upon the locals in Nanjing, Guangdong, Haikou, Changsha, Liuzhou, Guilin and so on,” and they were all indicted. But, as for “the bombardments upon Chongqing,” they were excluded(obviously intentionally) from the causes of the legal actions. The U.S., having intended to hide and justify the urban bombardments they had inflicted upon Japanese cities, averted their eyes from Japan's bombardments upon Chongqing, thus acquitting Japan of the crimes it had committed in Chongqing. The same thing occurred at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. That was, the air raids upon London by the Nazi Germany were not questioned so that the inhuman air raids upon Berlin and Dresden might not be offered as the counterevidences. These also prevented the Japanese from facing the fact honestly, as they should. Here lies one of the roots of the sin of ignorance.

Secondly, what had started at Guernica and Chongqing were to lead to the air-raid on Tokyo and finally to the atomic bombings upon Hiroshima and Nagasaki, thus revealing the ultimate form of air-raiding. Since the impact of the atomic bombings was such that the Japanese, instead of grasping the process from Chongqing to Hiroshima・Nagasaki as something that had occurred according to the law of cause and effect, took it as a mutation or something first and last of its kind in the course of human history. The mayor of Nagasaki, Motojima Hitoshi, pointed out in the Asahi, one of the leading newspapers in Japan, dated January 1st, 1995: “When the atomic bombings on the cities of Japan were reported, the Asian peoples, who had been suffering the invasion of the militarist Japan, were pleased with it, calling it a divine salvation, while more than half of the world population were pleased with it, too. There, in that point, another tragedy Japan must face was lying.” Considering the fact that they were the first to have suffered the atomic bombardment, it would be natural for them to have taken it as a mutation. But that was to cause the Japanese to remain lacking in the consciousness of their having committed a variety of atrocities in China. This also shows how ignorance is likely to lead to a wrong
recognition of things.

Because of such an intentional and unconscious discontinuation of relationship between the offenders and the victims, the tragedy Chongqing had suffered became shut up and hidden behind “the thick fog of history” for many years to come. Upon the extension of such historical facts, there have come such frequent bombardments upon cities as are being performed by the U.S..
Another new situation ― the 9.11 incident in 2001 ― must also be recognized as something that has risen from the same conception as has once supported the bombardments upon Chongqing. The indiscriminate bombings, which used to be adopted only by the powerful, have now become something to be employed by anyone, anywhere, anytime ― offering even another mutation “to perform an international terrorism,” and that, “by the union of terrorism and nuclear energy.” This is the third problem we are facing now.
I believe: these detailed facts I have offered in this book will help you learn the true nature of the modern world we live in. I hope all these facts I have presented here will work as the stepping stones for Japan to approach the better relationship with China as well as the world peace we must achieve in the future.
Last but not least, I offer my heart-felt thanks to Akiko Takemoto, who had kindly offered herself as the translator of this book.
June 23, 2015
Tetsuo Maeda


The translator, Akiko Takemoto (1937- ), started her career in 1959 as a teacher of English at a senior high school in Japan. In 1967, she attended the annual assembly of all Japan English Teachers' Association, held in Tokyo. It was then and there that the English poet, James Kirkup (1918-2009), gave an enchanting recital of poetry-reading as the guest speaker at the grand hall known as “the .tsuma Auditorium.” This led her to keep writing to him for more than forty years to come until he passed away.

About a few years before his decease in Andorra, those hundreds of letters and cards we had exchanged so far happened to come to the knowledge of THE BEINECKE RARE BOOK AND MANUSCRIPT LIBRARY of YALE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY in New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A., and we were politely invited to send them all the letters and cards we had exchanged so far. For a moment, I felt rather reluctant to part with all those papers that seemed immensely precious to me. But now that he is no more, and I myself am growing older, I feel quite relieved by the fact that: all those papers are now safely resting at the right place for them all.
During World War Ⅱ, the poet, James Kirkup ― a lifelong pacifist ― chose to be sent to a labour camp as a conscientious objector. After the War was over, he usually stayed away from home, as if he had determined to enjoy the freedom in the true sense of the word.
Last but not least, I must say that: we, the Japanese people themselves, were very fortunate to have had this book, 戦略爆撃の思想 (The Conception of Strategic Bombing), because it does awaken us to look back and learn the true nature of the crimes we have once committed in China, as if we had totally forgotten the fact how much we had been indebted to the Chinese people for almost all kinds of civilization and culture we have kept enjoying so far throughout our history ― as I realized, while being engaged in another work of my translation: KUKAI, THE UNIVERSAL, authored by Ry.taro Shiba, (19231996), edited by James Kirkup(mentioned above)― first published in 2001.
June 26, 2015
Akiko Takemoto

― The Introduction ―
The War Performed without Giving any Visual Check
.Goya Lucientes & Guo Moruo
.The Missing Link in the Evolution of War
.The Plan of the First Strategic Bombardment in the History of Wars
.The War Lacking in a Visual Check
.“Another Pearl Harbor”
.In the Capital Thrown into the Swirl of Conspiracies of the Nationalist-Communist Collaboration

― ChapterⅠ―
What had Led to the Air Raids upon Chongqing (1931-37)

The Birth of the Anti-Japanese Capital
.Another Long March
.The Final Stronghold for That Great Retreating Strategy
.The Dragon's Head or the Peninsula Lying between the Yangzi and the Jialing
.The Japanese Settlement was Abandoned
.The Glory and the Misery of “Jiang Jieshi's Capital”
.Transferring the Capital from Nanjing to Chongqing to Make it a Base for the National United Front Against Japan
.The Relocations of the Factories Turned out to be the Hardest Work to Do
.The Appearance of a Miniature of the Chinese Society
.The Secret Duty for Zhou Enlai to Perform

How the Strategic Bombardment Came into Being
.The Bombshells have Gained the Wings
.A New Military Theory of Attacking the Private Citizens
.General Mitchell and his Following
.Hitler, Mussolini and Franco
.The German Air Force Attacked Guernica from the Air
.The Italian Air Force's Bombardments upon Ethiopia

The Bombardment on Jinzhou Performed by Ishiwara Kanji
.Flying a Mission with Bombs Hung with Braids
.Ishiwara's Testimony at the Tokyo Trial
.The League of Nations' Decision on Making Japan Withdraw their Troops from China and the Occurrence of the First “Shanghai Incident”

The Transoceanic Bombings upon Nanjing
.The Japanese Government Abandoned its Non-Expansion Policy
.“The Greatest Air Raid in the World History of the Aerial Battles”
.The Large-Scaled Air Raids Comparable with the Holocaust at Nanjing
.The League of Nation's Resolution of Criticism against Japan and Roosevelt's Speech Criticizing Japan

The Battle for Keeping & Guarding the Great Wuhan
.“Let's Turn Wuhan into a Madrid in the East!”
.The Poetry Reciting Day Started with Guo Moruo's Appeal
.Some Volunteer Aviators Came from the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
.The Fall of Wuhan Leads to the Relocation of the Capital to Chongqing

The Construction of the W Base at Hankou
.The Supply Line has been Stretched to its Limit
.A Plan of the Bombardment upon Chongqing has Arisen
.A Honeymoon of the Army and the Navy with the Aircraft between Them
.“The W Base” for “The Regular Flight to Chongqing”
.The Strategic Bombings were Brought into Being by the Japanese

The First Air Raid upon Chongqing
.The Points in Common in What Happened in Chongqing and in Guernica
.“The Central Park,” the Public Square, shall be the Target
.The First Mission by the Army's 22 Planes Failed to Achieve their Purpose
.The First Air Battle against the Chinese Fighter Planes

― ChapterⅡ―
The Indiscriminate Bombings Started (1939)

The New Capital in May
.The People Anxious to Bathe in the Sunshine of May
.The City whose Scenery Gives Kaleidoscopic Changes
.Those who were Working at Zhou Enlai's Office
.The Air Defense Setup still Remained as Good as Nonexistent

The Middle-Sized Bombers' Takeoff
.Chongqing's Aerial Defense Headquarters after the Foggy Season
.The Navy Air Force's Desire for Fame
.The Forty-Five 96-Type Land Bombers Flew Straight for Chongqing 780km Due West of Hankou
.The Enemy's Oncoming was Kept Reporting to the Aerial Defense Headquarters in Chongqing
.The Red Lanterns to Alarm the Citizens of “the Arrival of the Enemy Planes”
.The Appearance of the Incendiary Bombs as a Product of the City Bombing

The Bombardment on May 3
.The Thirty Chinese Attack Planes Responded to the Japanese Invaders
.The Air Raid Experienced by the Citizens of Chongqing
.The Scenes of Horror Witnessed by a Boy Xiao
.“That Bombing was Intentionally Aimed at the Urban Area….”
.The Furious Smoke had Shuttered the Sunshine of May
.“The 673 People were Killed; the 350 People were Injured”
.Zhou Enlai's Return from Guilin to Chongqing
.Zou Taofen Fought his Verbal Battles to Save the Nation against Japan
.The Fire that Scorched the Night of a Lunar Eclipse
.The All Night Preparation for the Continuous Bombing upon the Same City

The Bombardment on May 4
.The Newspapers Criticized Japan's Indiscriminate Bombings
.The 27 Middle-Sized Bombers Presented themselves Again
.The Chinese Air Planes were Counterplotted
.The Citizens Left in the Sea of Fire Caused by the Incendiary Bombs
.The Air Raid upon Chongqing, as was Depicted by Han Suyin
.What Theodore White had Witnessed
.Many Dresses of Various Colors had Flown up in the Flaming Night Sky
.“The Killed were 3,318 and the Wounded were 1,937”
.The Buddhist Statues at Luohan-si Temple were Smiling upon the Wailing Capital.
.The Churches Protected by Foreign Rights & Interests also Suffered from Calamities
.The Embassies and the Consulates were also Damaged
.Jiang Jieshi's Advisor to his Air Force, Captain Claire Chennault from the U.S.
.The Yangzi and The Jialing with Numberless Bodies Floating upon them Those who Put those Bombardments on Record
.A New Form of Holocaust was Brought into Being
.Guo Moruo had Left his Wife & Children in Japan to Join the National United Front against Japan
.The Liberated Area for Cultural Activities: The Third Office of Administration Department
.Hasegawa Teru, a Japanese Woman, who Declared: “l Don't Care being Called a Betrayer”
.The Newspaper Version of the Nationalist-Communist Collaboration
.In the Criticism from Yan-an
.How Many were Killed or Injured in 5.3 and 5.4?
.The Navy Minister Yonai's Evasive Answer
.Jiang Jieshi was Watching Chongqing in the Sea of Fire from his Official Residence on Top of Mt. Huang Shan
.“Turn this May of Disgrace into the May of Revenge!”
.“Everything shall be Achieved through the United Front!”
.The Two Journalists from America

Edgar Snow's Advance Notice
.The Bombardments upon Chongqing, as was Witnessed by Snow
.“Chungking will Never Perish”
.The Jiang Administration was Expected to Submit
.The Bragging Given by the Chief of the Press Section of the Navy
.The Navy had Half Admitted their Indiscriminate Bombing even if it was Against the International Custom
.The Anti-Japanese Consciousness was Enhanced among the Citizens of Chongqing

The Relief of the Foggy Season
.1939 Turned out the Year of Great Calamities for all the World
.The Arrival of the Foggy Season Blessed with the Natural Smoke Screen
.Japan's Bombardments upon Chongqing were Performed Arbitrarily Prior to the History of the Strategic Bombings
.A Boy Xiao Has once Seen Seven Bodies of a Japanese Flight Crew
.The Chinese People in General Believed in their Victory If Only they Held out
.Mao Zedong's Words Quoted by Kiryuu Yuyu in his Personal Magazine ― A Stone from Another Mountain

― Chapter Ⅲ ―
No.101 Operations (1940)
―The Strategic & Political Bombings were Put into Practice―

Drawing up a Plan for the Indiscriminate Bombings
.The Planner of the Indiscriminate Bombings・Inoue Shigeyoshi
.The New Commander-in-Chief, Vice-Admiral Shimada Shigetaro's Enthusiasm
.A Strategy for Intercepting the Routes for Supporting Jiang Jieshi
.The Navy Trying to Promote the Aerial Operations
.The Occupation of Xuanchang was Carried out by Gathering What the Emperor had Wished
.The Flight Unit with 300 Planes was Rarely Seen even in the World

The Japanese Navy Air Corps
.Onishi Takijiro's Command of the Air Corps
.No. 101 Operation Accelerated the Enlargement of the Aerial Battles in the World
.The Life of Onishi, who had Run through his Life like Asura
. Onishi's Opinion: the Battleships should be Abolished and the Air Force should be Made Independent
.The Navy's Opportunism and Adventurism
.Under the Name of “an Attack on a Strategic Point,” the Conception of Strategic Bombing was Formulated

The Unfolding of No.101 Operations
.The Navy as the Mainstay of Flame Attack
.A New Type of Incendiary Bomb was Brought into Being
.“The Hours of Being Bombed” had Become Part of their Daily Life
.“No.101 Operations are Comparable with the Battle of the Japan Sea”
.Commander Yamaguchi's Address of Admonition: “Let them Cut our Flesh so We may Cut their Bones.”
.“The Regular Flight to Chongqing” shall be Sent Days and Nights
.The Start of No.101 Operations
.The Difference of Casualties and Damages Caused Above or Below the Clouds
.A Near Hit on the U.S. Warship Tutuila

A Nightmare of the U.S. Gunboat Panay's Case
.Taking care not to Damage the Third Powers' Rights and Interests
.The Indication of the Districts to be Bombed in the Urban Area
.The Double Standards Applied for Europe and for Asia
.“The Nightmare” Inoue Shigeyoshi had Dreaded
.The Damages were Given to the Third Nations' Rights & Interests
.A Note from President Roosevelt to the Secretary of State Hull

America's Warning to Japan
.President Roosevelt's Address to Criticize Japan
.The U.S.' Reaction to Arita's Note
.President Roosevelt's Order to Investigate How to Perform the Bombardments upon the Cities of Japan

The Regular Flight for Bombing upon Chongqing
.The Relocations of the Embassies and the Consulates
.The Heaviest Attack in the Plan of No. 101 Operations: A Series of Six-Day Bombardments upon the Urban Area
.The Missions, Day in, Day out, Exhausted the Airmen
.The School Zone & the Source of Water Supply were also Made their Attack Targets

The Zero Fighters' First Appearance
.More and More Middle-Sized Attack Planes were Shot down to Worry Inoue & Others
.Inoue Shigeyoshi Eagerly Requested to Send Zero Fighters into the Air Battle
.Having Secured the Command of the Air by being Escorted by the Zero Fighters
.The Zero Fighters “Achieved a Great Success” at their First Mission
.The Japanese Military's Invasion into China, as was Witnessed by Smedley
.No.101 Operations, as was Experienced by Smedley

Signs of the Start of the Japan-U.S.War
.AFuse to Lead to Pearl Harbor
.The General Statistics of No. 101 Operations
.The Generals & Admirals were Promoted, while Inoue Suffered a Setback
.Zhou Enlai's Speech: “The International Situation & China's Resistance to Japan”
.“On Imperialism”―a Speech made by Zhou Enlai
.His Clear Assertion: AWar will Break out between Japan and the U.S. and Japan's Setback will be Inevitable
.A Loud Singing of Our Volunteer Army March

― Chapter Ⅳ―
The Way to Pearl Harbor (1941)

What the Japan-Soviet Neutrality Pact Meant to China
.A Large Number of Air-Raid Caves still Remain
.A Former Air Raid Cave has been Turned into a Place of Pleasure
.The Completion of the Air Raid Caves to Accommodate 445,000 People
.A Horrible Tragedy Occurred at the Depths of the Cave
.No. 102 Operations Performed by the Larger Corps with the Newly-Produced Bombers

The Great Tragedy in the Air Raid Cave
.The Tragic Incident on June 5, 1941
.The Unusual Heat in the Cave Affected the Infant and the Invalid
.A Hell on Earth was Brought about in the Air-Raid Cave
.More than Ten Thousand People Struggling in the Cave of Unusual Heat

The Screaming in the Underground Hell
.“They've Dropped Poison Gas!”
.“Let me Go Out! It's Killing me!”
.“Master, Save me, Please!”
.Dead Bodies Piled Up were Tied Together and Drawn Out

Guo Moruo's Wrath
.The Toll of Victims still Remains Uncertain
.Jiang Jieshi's “Self-Confidence” had Left his Responsibility for the Accident Ambiguous
.Guo Moruo's Condemnation of “the Jiang Dynasty”
.“The Town of Death,” as was Witnessed by Kang Daichuan

Jiang Jieshi had Narrowly Escaped Death
.A Challenge Made by Admiral Shimada
.No.102 Operation Turned into the Springboard to the War against the U.S. and the U.K.
.Jiang Jieshi's Villa on Mt. Huangshan Overlooking Chongqing
.Major General Endo Made a Surprise Attack on Jiang Jieshi's Mountain Villa
.One of the Bombs Hit the Mark and Endangered Jiang Jieshi

The Japan - U.S. Relations were Growing Worse
.Major General Endo Saburo Presents his Opinion: “The Bombardment upon Chongqing will be of No Use”
.The Tutuila Incident
.The Japanese Ambassador Nomura in the U.S. had a Talk with Welles, an Undersecretary of State
.The Japanese Government's Declaration to Cease Bombing upon Chongqing was not Accepted as Trustworthy by the U. S.
.The Declaration of Cease-fire was Disregarded by the Field Headquarters

― Chapter Ⅴ―
Zhou Enlai & his Comrades under the Air Raids

“Jiang Jieshi's Capital”
.The Struggles between the Nationalists and the Communists under the Air Raids
.Chongqing was Turned into an Extremely-Overpopulated City
.Wicked Officials & Wicked Merchants Gained Power to Send the People to Destitution
.Even the Air-Raid Caves were made a Target for Speculation

The White Terrors Performed under the Air Raids
.The Miserable Scenes Witnessed by Mao Dun, a writer
.The Terrorism for Hunting Communists was Prevalent even in the Broad Daylight
.The Two Special Service Agencies: Jun-tong and Zhong-tong
.The Communist VIPs were being Kept under Strict Surveillance
.The Tortures & Secret Slaughters Performed at the Concentration Camp

The Man with Three Faces
.Zhou Enlai as “the Champion in Maneuvering the National United Front Against Japan”
.Zhou and Jiang were Fated to Share their Relationship
.The Xian Incident, in which Zhou and Jiang Met each other Again after Ten Years' Separation
.Zhou Enlai as a Subordinate of Jiang Jieshi
.Zhou Enlai as a Subordinate of Mao Zedong
.Zhou Enlai as an Organizer of the National United Front Against Japan

The Covering-Up of the Wannan Incident
.Zhou Enlai & Guo Moruo in Combination
.The Wannan Incident was a Trial which Zhou Enlai must Go through
.A Last Resort against News Censorship
.“Zhou's Office” as the Secret Headquarters
.The Reconstruction of the New Fourth Army

Literature in Full Bloom in the Save-the-Nation Movement Against Japan
.The Artists Keeping Active during the Foggy Season in Chongqing
.Tian Han as the Leader of the Left-Wing Drama Movement
.An Anti-Japanese Dramas, Sishi Tang Tang, had Begun to be Written by Lao She
.The Great Chorus of the Huanghe was Premiered ― the Starting Point of Save the Nation by Fighting Against Japan

Guo Moruo's Qu Yuan was Premiered
.The Determination to Perform the White Terror
.“I Wrote, Loved, and Offered Myself to the Revolution”
.The Libretto of Qu Yuan was Written in only Ten Days
.Zhou Enlai's Support Helped to Bring about a Great Success in the Premiere

The Anti-War Union of the Japanese Residents in China
.A Determination Made by Hasegawa Teru who had Married a Chinese
.To the Chinese Soldiers and the Japanese Soldiers at the Front Line
.TheAnti-War Leaflets Prepared by Kaji Wataru were Airdropped on Japan Proper
.The Start of “the Anti-War Union of the Japanese Residents in China”
.TheAnti-War Play was Performed by the Japanese Prisoners of War
.The Public Performance was Put on Hold because of the Conflict Between the Nationalist Party and the Communist Party
.Hasegawa Teru's “Death in Battle”

― Chapter Ⅵ―
From Chongqing to Hiroshima

A New Form of World War was Brought into Being
.The Combination of Airplanes and Flame Arms
.“The Aerial Invasion” in which Japan's Navy Air Force Took the Lead
.The Chongqing Bombardments as a Missing Link in the Indiscriminate Bombings upon Cities
.Japan's Bombardments upon Chongqing and America's Bombardments upon Japanese Cities were of the Same Roots
.Japan has Shut up their Bombardments upon Chongqing in the Dust Heap of History

The Start of the U.S.- Japanese War and Chongqing
.At the News of the Start of the U.S.-Japanese War, Jiang Jieshi was Overjoyed, Keeping the Record of Ave Maria Going
.Zhou's Office in Exultation Received Emergency Directions
.The Start of the U.S.-Japanese War Brought about a Complete Change in the War in China.
.The Three Nations Concerned Held a Military Council at Chongqing

“The Retaliation Bombings” between Britain and Germany
.Churchill had Suddenly Turned into a Supporter of Indiscriminate Bombings
.At First, Germany had Refrained from Bombing upon the Cities of the U.K.
.The U.K. and Germany Started to Exchange their Indiscriminate Bombings upon Cities
.Shigemitsu Mamoru's Note on the Air Raids in London

Churchill's Theory on Bombardment
.The Theory on “the Regional Bombardment”
.Lubeck, the First City to Suffer a Regional Bombing
.From “the Bomber Stream” to “the Aerial Attack”
.The Night Attacks Performed by the U.K.; The Day Attacks by the U.S.

German Cities being Annihilated by the Air Raids
.B17s and B24s were Sent over to the European Aerial Battles
.General Arnold and Colonel LeMay were made Commanders
.The Defects of Bomb Sights Caused a Gradual Rise in the Damage Rate of the U.S. Bombers
.The U.S. Air Force also Performed the Indiscriminate Bombings upon Hamburg and Dresden
.Germany Surrendered, and the U.K. & U.S. Type of Regional Bombings was to be Applied to Japan

The B29s Departed from China to Attack Japan
.Major General Curtis LeMay was Transferred to the Far East Battle Line
.A Project of Sending Bombers from the Chinese Continent to the Japanese Islands
.The Largest Airfields in the World were brought into Being at Chengdu
.Day and Night, the Construction of the Airfield Went on
.From Chengdu, the First Air Raiders were Sent to Japan Proper

The U.S.' Concentration Attacks by Incendiary Bombs
.LeMay's Scorched-Earth Tactics by means of Napalm Bombs
.An Attack on Japan's W Base at Hankou
.Japan's Military Institution and Concession at Hankou were Drowned in Fire
.The U.S. Air Force Built the Bases for B29s at the Marianas
.Brigadier General Hansell, a Supporter of Pinpoint Bombing, had his Post Changed

Then There Came the Atomic Bombing upon Hiroshima
.The Denouement of the Ideology & the Technology of Strategic Bombings
.The Command to Intensify the Incendiary Bombings upon the Cities
.The Project for the Atomic Bombings was Going on
.“Our First Aim is Hiroshima.”
.Japan is not Qualified to Denounce “the Conception of Dropping a Nuclear Bomb”
.The Negotiation between Jiang Jieshi and Mao Zedong was Held at Chongqing
.The Changes of the Inscriptions on the Monuments Symbolize the Vicissitudes and Anguishes Chongqing has Gone Through

― The Final Chapter ―
The Massacres from the Air still Go on

.“Killing One Man makes a Rascal; Killing One Million makes a Hero”
.What had the 20th Century Brought to Warfare?
.From the Eras of Cannonades to the Centuries of Bombardments
.“A Good Father” Pushes the Button for a Massacre
.The War has been Made Virtual and Non-Physical
.“The 9.11 Incident”―Has Another War Broken Out?
.The New Stage of the Terrors from the Air
.The Process from Guernica & Chongqing to Iraq
.The Bombardments upon Chongqing will Never be Canceled by the Statute of Limitations

The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)
The Russo-Japanese War (1904-5)
The Manchurian Incident(1931-2)
The Shanghai Incident(1931)
Go-ichigo(5. 15)Incident(1932)
Ni-niroku(2. 26)Incident(1936)
Lukouch'iao Incient(1937)
Sun Wen

武本 明子
前田 哲男